Mackness B, Mackness M, Arrol S, Turkie W, Durrington P. Effect of the human serum paraoxonase 55 and 192 genetic polymorphisms on the protection by high density lipoprotein against low density lipoprotein oxidative modification. The frequent association of RR genotype of PON1 192 with the risk of cardiovascular diseases reflects a diminished efficiency in the metabolism of oxidized lipids and/or less stability of this alloenzyme compared with QQ genotype 14. In this context, PON1 Q192R and PON1 L55M polymorphisms, as well as enzymatic activity of PON1, have been considered a tool that can contribute to the risk estimation of atheromatous diseases. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between PON 1 genetic polymorphisms and ischemic CVD of atherosclerotic etiology.
Linear regression analysis for arylesterase activity. Linear regression analysis for paraoxonase activity. To determine PON1-Q192R and PON1-L55M genetic polymorphisms, genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood using a commercial Kit (AquapureTM Genomic DNA kit, Bio-rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA). The identification of PON1 genotypes was carried out by PCR-RFLP 17, with further digestion of the amplified products with BspPI restriction enzymes for PON1-Q192R and Hin1II for PON1-L55M. The digested fragments were separated by electrophoresis and visualized in polyacrylamide gels at 7.5% and 20% for PON1-L55M and PON1-Q192R , respectively.
Ajuste del modelo¶
The variables were evaluated in a simple linear regression, those with a p-value of less than or equal to 0.1 were included in a saturated model of multiple linear regression, eliminating those that lost statistical significance. Age and sex were maintained for being potentially confounding. The data were analyzed by using the SPSS® statistical program version 13, with a statistical significance of 0.05.
There were included 28 people with atherothrombotic stroke and 29 without stroke. The genotyping was carried out by PCR-RFLP and the phenotyping by measurement of the activities of paraoxonase and arylesterase in serum. D. Broadhurst, R. Goodacre, A. Jones, J. J. Rowland et D.
The ischemic cerebrovascular disease or https://forexhero.info/ stroke, is caused by the interruption of cerebral blood flow caused by a thrombus promoted by atherosclerosis or cardioembolism 1. Atherothrombotic cerebral infarction is the most common subtype of cerebral infarctions, having an approximate frequency of 37% 2being the clinical consequence of the atheromatous disease. Multiple factors induce atherogenesis, mainly oxidized- low density lipoproteins (ox-LDL), which trigger an immune response in the wall of the vessel participating in the development of atherosclerosis 3. LDL oxidation degree depends on the balance of oxidants/antioxidants agents and the existing LDL concentration4.
Introducción a Machine Learning
On the other hand, it is known that high density lipoproteins have an anti-atherosclerotic role, since they metabolize ox-LDL in the arterial wall, transporting them to the liver for their elimination 5,6. This capacity of the HDL is due to the association of enzymes such as paraoxonase-1 and acetylhydrolase of the platelet activating factor (PAF-AH) which decrease LDL peroxidation 4,7. The categorical variables were compared by using Chi square test. The variables with normal distribution were compared by a Students-t or ANOVA. Those non normal variables were analyzed with the U test of Mann-Whitney and were further transformed to logarithmic values to carry out the regression tests.
Genetic algorithms as a method for variable selection in multiple linear regression and partial least squares regression, with applications to pyrolysis mass spectrometry. In this article, I will explain the key differences between regression and classification supervised machine learning algorithms. It is important to understand the differences before an appropriate machine learning algorithm can be chosen. Humbert R, Adler D, Disteche M, Hassett C, Omiecinski J, Furlong C. The molecular basis of the human serum paraoxonase activity polymorphism.
The linear regression analysis allowed us to know that age is one of the factors which have influence in the levels of the paraoxonase and arilesterase activities of PON1. For arylesterase activity , in the simple regression analysis, the variables of diagnosis, age, total cholesterol, alcohol consumption and Q192R polymorphism were related with the activity. In the multiple regression analysis, age, alcohol consumption and total cholesterol determined in a significant and independent way the arylesterase activity variation, although they only explained it in a 27.6%. The statistical difference obtained from the arylesterase activity between control and case groups was not longer significant upon adjustment during the multiple linear regression.
Yellowbrick: Visualización de Machine Learning
Differences found in paraoxonase activity were not dependent on PON1 level but on Q192R genotype, as it was proposed when the polymorphism was discovered for the first time 15. A genetic embedded approach for gene selection and classification of microarray data. In Proceedings of the 5th European conference on Evolutionary computation, machine learning and data mining in bioinformatics, EvoBIO’07, pages , Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007. The present study included 28 cases of atherothrombotic cerebral infarction and 29 controls. Table 1 show that age, sex and alcohol and tobacco consumption were different between cases and controls. The clinical parameters of BMI, serum lipids and hypercholesterolemia were similar between both groups.
The total serum cholesterol and triglycerides determination were carried out with CHOD-PAP, HDL-C with HDL-C plus third generation and LDL-C with LDL-C second generation . To provide an overview of decision trees based on CART methodology. As an example, we developed a CART model intended to estimate the probability of intrahospital death from acute myocardial infarction . Parthasarathy S, Barnett J, Fong LG. High density lipoprotein inhibits the oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein. Clinical and anthropometric characteristics and allele/genotype frequencies of the study groups. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use.
Supervised Machine Learning: Regression Vs Classification
No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. Linkage disequilibrium study with a parallel adaptive GA.
The laboratory personnel carried out the samples genotyping in a blind test which diferencia entre regresion y clasificacion control samples and the experimental samples validation. The concordance with the control samples was 100%. A hybrid GA/SVM approach for gene selection and classification of microarray data. A study of cases and controls was conducted by the National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery in Mexico City, during the year 2005. The participants or relatives signed an informed consent and answered a questionnaire and provided a venous blood sample for biochemical and molecular analysis.
Predicción y evaluación del modelo¶
In this study where Mexican subjects were included, Q192R and L55M polymorphisms, paraoxonase and arilesterase activities from PON1 are not risk factors for atherothrombotic cerebral infarction. The polymorphisms Q192R and L55M, and the paraoxonase activity of PON1 are not risk factors for atherothrombotic stroke according to the results of this study. The arylesterase activity has been used as a measure of PON1 level 8,14,21. Therefore, the homogeneous distribution that was found in the arilesterase activities among QQ, QR and RR genotypes suggests similar levels of this enzyme.
Paraoxonase activity was determined in serum by modifying the Eckerson method 15. The enzyme-substrate reaction was initiated by the addition of 20 µL of serum plus 980 µL of buffer pH 8 (Tris 10 mM, 1 mM CaCl2, 2.6 M NaCl µL, 1 mM of paraoxon). The rate of hydrolysis was determined with a UV-VIS spectrophotometer (Varian Cary 50, Varian Inc., Palo Alto, CA) by measuring the hydrolysis product (p-nitrophenol) at a wavelength of 412 nm. Increases in A412 continued for 5 min (a molar extinction coefficient of 17,100 M-1 cm-1 was used)16.
Primo-Parma L, Sorenson C, Teiber J, La Du B. The human serum paraoxonase/arylesterase gene is one member of a multigene family. F.C. Garcia-Lopez, M. Garcia-Torres, B. Melian, J.A. Moreno-Perez, J.M. Moreno-Vega. Solving feature subset selection problem by a Parallel Scatter Search, European Journal of Operational Research, vol.
International Journal of Foundations of Computer Science, 2004.
- To determine the allelic and genotypic frequencies of PON1 L55M and Q192R as well as the enzymatic activities of PON1 in subjects with and without atherothrombotic stroke.
- A study of cases and controls was conducted by the National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery in Mexico City, during the year 2005.
- The rate of hydrolysis was determined with a UV-VIS spectrophotometer (Varian Cary 50, Varian Inc., Palo Alto, CA) by measuring the hydrolysis product (p-nitrophenol) at a wavelength of 412 nm.
- D. Broadhurst, R. Goodacre, A. Jones, J. J. Rowland et D.
The case group were hospitalized subjects between 35 and 85 years of age, with a recent diagnostic of ischemic CVD atherothrombotic type in acute phase. The control group was subjects between 35 and 75 years of age who passed the established tests for blood donation in the same hospital. The study was approved by the INNN Bioethics Committee (No. 67/01). Gan KN, Smolen A, Eckerson HW, La Du B. Purification of human serum paraoxonase/arylesterase Evidence for one esterase catalyzing both activities. To determine the allelic and genotypic frequencies of PON1 L55M and Q192R as well as the enzymatic activities of PON1 in subjects with and without atherothrombotic stroke. Adkins S, Gan KN, Mody M, La Du B. Molecular basis for the polymorphic forms of human serum paraoxonase/arylesterase glutamine or arginine at position 191, for the respective A or B allozymes.
- Differences found in paraoxonase activity were not dependent on PON1 level but on Q192R genotype, as it was proposed when the polymorphism was discovered for the first time 15.
- The arylesterase activity has been used as a measure of PON1 level 8,14,21.
- The present study included 28 cases of atherothrombotic cerebral infarction and 29 controls.
- However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use.
- The frequent association of RR genotype of PON1 192 with the risk of cardiovascular diseases reflects a diminished efficiency in the metabolism of oxidized lipids and/or less stability of this alloenzyme compared with QQ genotype 14.
For the arilesterase activity, 2,995 µL of phenyl acetate was used as a substrate in a pH 8 buffer and 5 µL of serum. The hydrolysis rate was determined by measuring the product at 270 nm wavelength, monitoring it for 3 min and registering the value before and after the incubation was obtained. Absorbance was adjusted based on the molar extinction coefficient 1,310 M cm−1 (15. For biochemical assays the Hitachi 912 autoanalyzer was used.